Elementary-Level Cyclist Training Program: Objectives, Techniques & Results

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1 Objectives

The rationale for teaching Effective Cycling technique to middle-school students and the success achieved at that age through the Intermediate-Level Effective Cyclist Training program have been discussed in a previous paper by myself 1. Observation, Cross's age distribution of car/bike collision statistics as analyzed by Forester 2, section 1.4, and the Chlapecka et al study of elementary school children3, show that elementary school children also do a lot of cycling and incur a lot of accidents. Since Effective Cycling technique is the best that is known for adult and middle-school cyclists, it is obviously important to know at what ages the various components of this skill can be learned. It may be that these components can be learned sufficiently early to meet the young cyclists' need for mobility with reasonable safety, or it may be that these components are so difficult that some other arrangement must be devised for young cyclists. A priori one would assume that if the various components of Effective Cycling technique can be learned early enough to meet the needs, then it would be an inefficient use of resources to devise some other arrangement which would then have to be superseded after only a few years of use by each child.

Grade 3 is the first grade at which many suburban children are permitted to ride to school. Children of cycling families start to learn under parental instruction one or two years earlier, but these are obviously exceptional cases in today's society although they demonstrate that that capability exists at that age. Grade 3 appears to be the appropriate age for initial training.

Grade 5 children ride for transportation and are about to enter shopping areas and to travel more widely as their interests broaden. They also are starting to incur all types of car-bike collision 2 (section 1.4). If, as seems likely, grade 3 students cannot be taught all that cyclists need to know, grade 5 appears to be a good age at which to learn more.

The objectives of this developmental program were to determine what levels of cycling proficiency could be reached in reasonable time at grades 3 and 5.

2 Techniques

Therefore, when the Parent-Teacher Association of Menlo Park, California, (a city adjacent to Palo Alto, where the intermediate-level program had been tested) under the leadership of Mrs. Kay Williams, asked for advice about elementary-school bike safety programs, I advised them that now was the appropriate time to test a program of teaching elementary-school cyclists how to ride safely and properly. Because of the unconventional nature of this proposal it took more than one year of meetings to arrange for the pilot program. The teaching was conducted over a 2-week period in summer vacation, 1981, under the auspices of the Menlo Park/Atherton PTA.

Students of two age groups were accepted: those entering or leaving grade 5, and those entering or leaving grade 3. Each class met for 1.5 hours a day for 10 days (Mon-Fri for 2 weeks), thus receiving 15 hours of instruction. Parents pre-enrolled children and prepaid a $15 fee. Two weeks before class started they received copies of Effective Cycling Cycling at the Intermediate Level 4 including instructions for mechanical safety and operational inspections with a detailed item-by-item sign-off sheet. This pre-class distribution of inspection instructions with the sign-off that accepted responsibility for defects was adopted because of the class interruptions caused by mechanical failures that we had experienced in the intermediate class. This procedure convinced the parents to get the bicycles in operating condition before the classes; mechanical failure interruptions were insignificant in these elementary classes. In grade 5 the bicycles were about evenly divided between multi-speeds and one-speeds, most of which were "dirt bikes". In grade 3 there were few multi-speeds, most being small-wheeled bicycles.

We showed the film Bicycling Safely on the Road 5 to both classes, even though that film shows only adults as role models and covers more advanced cycling than we would be teaching. We did so because no other acceptable film existed. Before showing the film, and afterwards, we emphasized that this film showed grown-ups riding properly, in the way that these students would also grow up to do. We will teach them the beginning of this kind of cycling as is necessary to ride on the streets around the school with much less traffic, so that they would be safe now and be ready to learn how to ride in more difficult traffic when they got older and needed to go to more places. We will teach these students how to ride in the same way shown in the film, because you do the same things on all roads, but we will teach only in easy traffic because these students are not yet old enough to operate in complicated situations. The students seemed to accept this premise and to understand the film on this basis.

As deliberate policy, instruction was limited to the basic traffic concepts (5 for grade 5, 3 for grade 3) and to achieving reasonable performance in practicing them. These concepts are:

1 Ride on the right-hand side of the roadway, not on the left and not on the sidewalk.

2 How to yield to crossing traffic when reaching a superior roadway.


3 How to yield to overtaking traffic when moving laterally.


4 Destination positioning at intersections.


5 Speed positioning between intersections.

Before I had become familiar with the efficacy of these concepts in promoting the students' understanding and proficiency I had developed a very cautious program of developing each traffic concept and testing the students' proficiency through playground practice before practicing it on the streets. (This was published in Effective Cycling Instructor's Manual 2nd ed .6 (section 3.4) I had intended to see how much of this was necessary as the class progressed. However, with the success of the intermediate program and with just a little observation of these elementary classes I became convinced that it is better to take the class directly onto 2-lane residential streets where they will very soon interact with gentle traffic.

The only playground work was testing for the ability to ride straight while looking over either shoulder. The students rode an oval circuit while the instructor stood beside the straight segment. As they passed him, the students looked over their shoulders at him. As he observed adequate skill, he directed each proficient student out of the circuit. It takes only one look for the instructor to tell the difference between wobbly and straight students. Three laps only were required to accept all students. This was repeated so both right-behind and left-behind looking were tested.

Not merely is playground practice largely unnecessary, it diverts effort and time from necessary training. Restricting instruction to the five (or three for grade 3) basic traffic concepts and immediately starting to practice the first two under real conditions allows the students the greatest possible proportion of class time for repeated practice of each skill. Repeated practice under conditions of gradually increasing complexity is the key to successful teaching of cycling. By the end of the 2-week sessions the teaching routine had become organized to repeat each action as many times as possible. I cannot emphasize this sufficiently. Most bike safety programs attempt to teach too many concepts, each with insufficient practice, if any at all. The result is the chaos that we see on the streets that produces the accident statistics. I have found that success comes from few concepts taught and practiced until proficiency is achieved. However, this could not previously be accomplished within reasonable time. The crucial development that made this system possible within reasonable class duration was the condensation of traffic knowledge into the five basic traffic concepts.

There were almost 30 grade 3 students and about 20 grade 5 students. I was the lead instructor; assisting me were Mrs. Diana Lewiston, who had first assisted and later taught by herself the Palo Alto intermediate classes, and Mrs. Kay Williams and Mrs. Rebecca Burt, who had no previous cycling instructional experience but who both had many years of consistent, although short-range, utilitarian cycling experience. Some other parents assisted on occasion. There were always at least 3 instructors for the grade 3 class and 2 for the grade 5 class, usually 4 and 3. This allowed for ample supervision and coaching when on the road.

Each period's format was simple. Upon arrival, students parked their bicycles nearby and picked up their number placards. When class opened there was a short lecture of 10-15 minutes, discussing what would be practiced that day. Then we went on a ride that allowed repeated practice of the day's subject and of previously-taught subjects. After the ride we often, but not always, closed with a short evaluation talk. Therefore, the students were riding on the road for at least an hour a day.

The rides started out as single group rides, with the students strung out in a sometimes single, sometimes double line. This is normal for adult classes and worked for middle-school classes, but with younger students it is not as good. These students are very susceptible to the follow-the-leader effect, which means that only the leader thinks and acts properly while the followers just follow, even though conditions have changed. There is also the normal disparity in desired cycling speed, which in grade 3 produced an argumentative, competitive group each trying to lead the line while jammed together because the lead instructor had to restrict the speed and call for periodic regrouping stops. The need for closer supervision at the lower ages restricted the amount of freedom and the duration of free motion to a much greater degree than in adult classes, where students can be allowed to ride alone for half an hour (or even longer) at a time. Furthermore, these young students need many more repetitions of each maneuver that is taught than do older students, who benefit from a wider variety of experiences.

Therefore, although the students liked going somewhere and returning, and enjoyed traveling in a single group, we more and more adopted the practice of dividing into small groups (6 to 10 per instructor) of similar abilities which performed individual, repetitive exercises. In these, each student individually in turn performed a practice maneuver as the instructor watched and coached, and then returned to the starting point while other students rode through the maneuver.

The most active students tend to congregate around the most active instructor. This instructor then starts his section by sprinting them over a few short hills (even overpasses over freeways are sufficient) or conducting a few sprints to absorb their excess energy so that they stop arguing over the lead and get ready to pay attention.

Each concept is first taught at a location that presents no unusual complications and at which the students probably will not interact with traffic. The students stand and watch the instructor demonstrate the maneuver. The instructor performs the maneuver while explaining what he is doing, which may take several repetitions to explain each aspect. The demonstration concludes with a specific stopping place. Then the instructor stations the students where they can get a reasonable approach to the maneuver, and stations himself where he can both see approaching traffic and observe and orally instruct each student through the maneuver. Having determined that the approaching traffic suits his purposes (naturally, no approaching traffic for the first runs), the instructor calls each student through in turn. As and after the student performs, the instructor praises and criticizes as appropriate.

The first objective is to get the students to perform and to understand the correct sequence of actions. For example, many grade 3 students don't understand what is meant by "right next to the center of the road." When first attempting a left turn, even after just seeing it done, they adopt a variety of approach positions. Practice is repeated until all students demonstrate mastery of the sequence.

The second objective is to understand why each action is performed. Q: "What do you do first?" A:"Look over my shoulder." Q:"Why do you do that?" A:"So I won't turn in front of a car." Q:"What are you looking for?" A:"No traffic."

Once the instructor is assured that all students perform the correct sequence of actions and show a rough understanding of why, he changes his traffic timing (and maybe moves the group to a location with more traffic) so that students interact with cars as they perform the maneuver. As the students improve, the instructor starts each one rolling at more difficult traffic situations.

For left turns, for example, the instructor selects a street that is protected by stop signs to avoid cross-traffic interference. He stations the group half way along a block with himself standing by the curb at the group's head. He waits until he sees a same-direction car in the distance, and then tells the first rider to roll. The rider gets rolling and then turns his head. He sees the car. Whether he decides to wait by the curb or to move to the center doesn't matter because there is plenty of distance for the motorist to accommodate to the cyclist's action. Gradually, as he sees the students performing reliably, the instructor instructs the cyclist to roll out when he will interact with both overtaking and opposing cars. By session 9 I had the better grade 3 students doing this reliably on a 2-lane collector street carrying about 5 cars a minute at 30 mph. I believe, now that we understand the value of this individual practice, small group training, that this could be achieved by session 7 for the better grade 3 students and by session 9 for average grade 3 students.

Certainly there is some risk, but I conclude that it is minor. The students are not daredevils; they are cautious. They perform safely because now they know what to be cautious of and how to operate safely. Once they learn the proper sequence of actions they err on the side of caution, just as the instructor does, and only gradually reduce their caution as they improve their estimates of the speed and distance of other traffic as related to their own mobility. One grade 3 student turned left when an opposing car was a little close. I saw the car's front end dip as its driver braked for half a second or so to give more clearance. When that student had returned and worked up to second in line again I asked him what had happened. "Oh, last time I had waited so long for a car that I decided that I could have turned. This time I turned when he was too close. I guess somewhere in the middle is OK." How else can one learn to estimate these things?

In previous classes the final examination had been done using the numbered-cyclist, tape-recorded observations technique. 6 We found that teaching is improved by using this technique for teaching sessions also. Diana Lewiston had produced a very handy number placard that is tied around the waist. (Fig 1) This is so easy to don that by the second time all the grade 3 students knew how to do it. We assigned each student a permanent number. Upon reaching class, each student reported in and donned his/her placard; at close of class, each returned the placard. By session 3 all knew their numbers. Two instructors wore tape recorders to classes and recorded those observations that appeared to be useful.

There was no anti-numbering sentiment. On the contrary, the students took to using the numbers as names. "Hey, Thirty Three, come back here!" They were also very curious to hear how others did and to hear praise for themselves, so playing back the comments became a frequent closing discussion. We took care not to overdo the playback, lest it lose its effect. I had to develop a reputation for accuracy, and for recording only what I actually had seen. To complaints that "Fred made the same mistake that I did," or "You didn't count me right on that turn," I replied that I recorded only what I had seen, and I wouldn't guess at anything else. The fairness of this approach and the general accuracy of my observations won their respect for the observations, which were always curiously awaited. It also familiarized the students with the examination technique, which both eases the procedure of getting number placards on and off and made the students understand what behavior was being required and how it was recorded. They became convinced that the examination would be realistic and serious.

Instructors must ensure that they do not lead students into situations for which the students are not ready. This may require zigzag routing and may severely limit the area of operation, particularly for the grade 3 students who are expected to handle little more than residential-street traffic. For example, getting a grade 3 class across a busy 2-lane minor arterial street at a non-signalized intersection can take more than 5 minutes, because cyclists of this age and skill need large gaps in traffic which may occur infrequently. Four-way stop signs present an equal problem if traffic is continuous, because the right-of-way is never clear and is continuously changing. Each driver needs to understand taking turns, how to recognize whose turn is next, and how to negotiate with other drivers, a combination that is far beyond the ability of neophyte cyclists (or pedestrians). They get across in time, but only by upsetting the orderly operation.

Testing is by the numbered-cyclist, moving observer, tape-recorded observation technique. 6 The students are tested over roads that they have ridden in class and only in maneuvers that they have been taught. Groups of up to 8 students can be tested at one time. The route should be laid out to present several examples of each maneuver, and student positions within the group should be shuffled during the ride.

3 Results

The prime objective was to determine whether children of grades 3 and 5 could learn useful levels of traffic cycling skills in a reasonable time. A subsidiary objective was to obtain better information about the relationship between age and ability to learn cycling traffic skills.

The most prevalent types of car-bike collision for grade 3 students are caused by failure to yield to crossing traffic and failure to yield to overtaking traffic types, which Cross terms "cyclist rideout" and "cyclist swerve" accidents and which generally occur on 2-lane residential streets near home. 8

When tested for performance of these skills under this condition, the 20 grade 3 students who were present for the final exam scored 96% class average, with lowest individual scores of 78% and 93%. These skills were not tested by themselves; they were tested only as incorporated into all the basic traffic maneuvers that are required on such streets. Left turns are regarded as most difficult and dangerous, but these grade 3 students made vehicular-style left turns far better than average adult cyclists. They looked behind, yielded to overtaking traffic, swung to the center, approached the intersection, yielded to crossing and opposing traffic, and swung their turns, many of them with obvious style and understanding. One can make the technical objection that since this program did not conduct a pre-instructional test we don't know whether this skill was learned in class. This objection is absurd. These students didn't know how to do anything correctly at the start, just as many adults don't. The fact that substantially all of them had to be coached through every type of maneuver proves this point. The instructor has no difficulty in identifying the rare student who already knows how. To have directed them to ride a test course would have been assuming far too great a risk of accident. One can conclude, then, that given the prevalent travel and traffic-accident patterns of very young American cyclists, it is possible to teach them to properly operate in their present environment and thus avoid the largest proportion of their traffic accidents.

This cycling on residential streets is probably about as difficult a task as children of this age (8 years) can handle without a lot more experience. There was a marked difference in ability between the less and the more advanced students. The less advanced seemed to have difficulty in understanding what each action is intended to accomplish, while the more advanced proved capable of operating well on collector streets with about 5 cars per minute. Furthermore, all these children appeared confused when confronted with situations in which they ought to consider traffic from several directions simultaneously, as at busy 2-lane 4-way stops. Admittedly, we had given them no training in this situation, but to reach that instructional level would require a lot more instructional time. This age and grade level appears to encompass the appropriate developmental stage at which children can first learn the basics of traffic cycling (at least with present teaching techniques and in today's very cycling-ignorant society) but are not yet ready for more complicated situations.

Grade 5 students are entering upon a wider range of cycling activities with a greater range of car-bike collision types. Ideally, at this age they ought to learn everything about cycling in order to be ready for their extensive use of cycling transportation over the next decade. However, in view of the results achieved with grade 7 students (1) we did not aim for this ideal. Grade 5 students learned to apply the first 3 basic traffic concepts very well (ride on the right, yielding to crossing traffic and yielding to overtaking traffic). They also learned concepts 4 and 5, destination positioning at intersections and speed positioning between intersections, but, like grade 7 students, they did not carry out these concepts as well as the first three. Unlike the grade 7 students, they did not develop a vocal expression of their understanding of how the traffic system works, for example by telling motorists how to drive properly, as the grade 7 students had done.

However, the grade 5 students achieved substantially the degree of competence required for the cycling that they currently perform. They became competent to perform all the standard maneuvers in low-speed traffic on 4-lane streets. Presumably, with more experience they will develop the ability to ride in medium-speed traffic on 6-lane streets because that requires no additional concepts, but only greater familiarity with multi-lane traffic. Because destination positioning at intersections had been the concept with weakest performance among trained grade 7 students and among untrained adults, we moved this concept from fifth (and last) to fourth in the training sequence. Grade 7 students had shown some mistakes in distinguishing between right and straight lanes; grade 5 students with more training in this concept did better. The concept of speed positioning, now last in sequence, was presented with particular emphasis against overtaking between a slow car and the curb, and these grade 5 students appeared better than the grade 7 students in avoiding this trouble. (This situation combines both speed and destination positioning. It may be that the later training reinforced the earlier.)

Grade 7 students learned more quickly, and developed an understanding of how the traffic system is supposed to work. These effects are probably interrelated. However, one cannot conclude that this difference between grade 5 and grade 7 students is caused by neurological maturation; it might be the result of the extensive cycling experience in the intervening years.

Each of these three training programs is 12-15 hours in length. Each seems to adequately prepare child cyclists for their type of cycling, both present and in their immediate future. Therefore, each program can be advantageously adopted now. However, the advanced programs duplicate the elementary work, because they have been given to children with no previous cycling training. Similarly, the beginning parts of motor-vehicle driver training duplicate much of this bicycle-driver training, because previous bike-safety programs did not develop driving skills. At each level we now have duplication instead of review because we have had no program of age-graded driver training. As the system of bicycle-driver training becomes effective we can expect to diminish the required duration of each advanced course or to increase the content covered. Notice also that most of the bicycle-safety curricula that are today considered most advanced concentrate on hazard recognition and avoidance, a subject that these courses have not yet considered. These courses concentrate on preventing the cyclist from creating his own hazards by teaching him to act properly, which I think is a necessary prerequisite to detecting and avoiding the hazards caused by others. I think it reasonable that child bicycle-driver training ought to progress to this stage of detecting and avoiding the mistakes of others, since among adult cyclists these are the major causes of car-bike collisions. Further, I estimate that grade 7 students have the intellectual capacity to do this, and that they will be ready to learn this if they have been prepared by proper elementary cycling training.

My least optimistic prediction of what the future bicycle-driver programs will be like is just what we have here demonstrated to work without previous training. We ought to be able to do better in the future. My optimistic prediction is that such programs will progress as far as hazard avoidance, as follows:

Grade 3 Training in the first three traffic concepts.

Grade 5 Review of grade 3. Training in intersection positioning and in speed positioning on multi-lane streets.

Grade 7 Review of grade 5. Training in traffic system principles and in recognizing and avoiding the mistakes of others.

Later For those who wish to become expert cyclists. Review of all previous work to bring performance up to the expert level. Instruction and practice in all the other aspects of cycling that are covered in Effective Cycling .7

4 Conclusions

1

Children of grade 3 level without previous bicycle training can, in a 15-hour course, learn to adequately perform all the basic traffic maneuvers that are required on 2-lane residential streets in the normal traffic of such streets. The specific concepts learned are: riding on the right-hand side of the roadway, how to yield to crossing traffic when approaching a superior roadway, how to yield to overtaking traffic when moving laterally, and centerline approach for left turns.

2

Children of grade 5 level without previous bicycle training can, in a 15-hour course, learn to perform all the basic traffic maneuvers that are required on 4-lane streets in dense 25 mph traffic. The specific concepts learned are: riding on the right-hand side of the roadway, how to yield to crossing traffic when approaching a superior roadway, how to yield to overtaking traffic when moving laterally, destination positioning at intersections, and speed positioning between intersections.

3

Although the repertoire of maneuvers at each grade level is not the complete repertoire desirable for the complete cyclist, and although the traffic intensity (speed, volume and number of lanes) in which these maneuvers were performed is not as difficult as is required for total urban mobility, these students performed their maneuvers far better than average cyclo-commuting adults. The limitation on ability at these ages does not appear to be difficulty in learning what to do, but difficulty in observing, estimating, and keeping track of the paths of many vehicles simultaneously. We do not know the relative importances of neurological maturity and of experience in determining this limit of performance.

4

In contrast with grade 7 students, these students did not develop an obvious understanding that they were participating in the normal operation of the traffic system. It could be that the quantity of specific instruction had reached the limit of their short-term learning capacity; it could be that this concept is too difficult for immature minds; or it could be that, since this is the first time at which typical American suburban children participate in a systematic adult activity, it was merely difficult for them to realize what was happening.

5

The cost of this training is about 2 instructor-hours per student at each of the two grade levels it is done, using a mix of about 1/4 fully-trained instructors and 3/4 assistant instructors.


5 References

1 Forester, John: Intermediate-Level Cyclist Training Program: Objectives, Techniques and Results : 1981: Custom Cycle Fitments, Sunnyvale CA 94086

2 Forester, John: Cycling Transportation Engineering : 1977: Custom Cycle Fitments, Sunnyvale CA 94086. Now superseded by Forester, John: >Bicycle Transportation; 1993: The M.I.T. Press, Cambridge, MA 02142.

3 Chlapecka, T. W., Schupack, S. A., Planek, T. W., Klecka, N., & Driessen, G. J.: Bicycle Accidents and Usage Among Elementary School Children in the United States : 1975: National Safety Council, Chicago IL 60611.

4 Forester, John: Effective Cycling at the Intermediate Level : 1981: Custom Cycle Fitments, Sunnyvale CA 94086.

5 Iowa State University Film Production Unit: Bicycling Safely On The Road : 1979: 16 mm film and VHS video, 25 min: Ames IA 50010. Now superseded by Seidler Productions; Effective Cycling Video ; Rt 4, Box 6781-5, Crawfordsville, FL 32327

6 Forester, John: Effective Cycling Instructor's Manual : 1977 (Fourth edition, 1986): Custom Cycle Fitments, Sunnyvale CA 94086.

7 Forester, John: Effective Cycling 975 (Sixth edition 1994, The M.I.T. Press, Cambridge MA 02142

8 Cross, Kenneth D., & Gary Fisher: A Study of Bicycle/Motor-Vehicle Accidents: Identification of Problem Types and Countermeasure Approaches : 1977: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

 
Table 1: Elementary-Level Cyclist Training Program for Grade 3; Suggested Class Schedule 20 periods of 45-50 minutes each
 Sess. Num. Text Sects Type Content
 1 Intro  Lect Assign numbers. Show how to don. Collect bicycle inspection forms. With students on bicycles leaning against wall, inspect for major mechanical items and for correct posture adjustments. Short lecture on traffic systems and cooperative cycling.
2 2.1 Lect  Show Bicycling Safely on the Road. Intro talk first. discussion afterwards
3 2.2

Lect

Pract

Yielding to cross traffic

Driveway exiting practice, residential street stop sign practice

 4 2.3

Lect

Pract

Yielding to overtaking traffic

Stop sign practice across street with several cars per minute. Practice in estimating speed and distance clearance

5 2.4

Lect

Pract

Yielding to overtaking traffic

Looking over shoulder playground practice and test. Left turns at residential intersection

6

2.5.1

2.5.2

Lect

Pract

Review of previous. Left turns

Left turns at residential intersection

7

2.5.3

2.5.4

2.5.5

Lect

 

Pract

Left turn review

Left turns on collector street with more traffic. Practice in estimating speed and distance clearance

8   Pract Fun ride with review of previous
9 2.5.6 2.5.7

Lect

Pract

 Intersection positioning with left-turn-only lanes

Left turns at 2-lane intersection with left-turn-only lane

10  

Lect

Pract

4-way stop signs. Concept of taking turns

Practice at appropriate intersection

11  

Lect

Pract

Review all previous

Review ride

12  

Lect

Pract

Review left turns

Left turns on residential streets with some traffic. Fun ride home

13  

Lect

Pract

Review

Fun ride on 2-lane streets that includes stop signs, right turns, left turns.

14  

Lect

Pract

Traffic signals

Fun ride on 2-lane streets that includes stop signs, right turns, traffic signals

15     Repeat 14
16     Review, repeat 14
17     Repeat 16
18     Repeat 17, Discuss examination procedure
19 & 20     Final examinations

 
Table 2: Elementary-Level Cyclist Training Program for Grade 5; Suggested Class Schedule 20 periods of 45-50 minutes each
 Sess Num Text Sects Type Content
 1 Intro Lect Assign numbers. Show how to don. Collect bicycle inspection forms. With students on bicycles leaning against wall, inspect for major mechanical items and for correct posture adjustments. Short lecture on traffic system and cooperative cycling
2 2.1 Lect Show Bicycling Safely on the Road. Intro talk first, discussion afterwards.
 3 2.2

Lect

Pract

Yielding to crossing traffic

Driveway exiting practice, residential street stop sign practice

4 2.3

Lect

Pract

Yielding to crossing traffic review

Stop sign practice across street with several cars per minute. Practice in estimating speed and distance clearance

5 2.4

Lect

Pract

Yielding to overtaking traffic

Looking over shoulder playground practice and test. Left turns at residential intersection

6 2.5.1 2.5.2

Lect

Pract

Review of previous. Left turns

Left turns at residential intersection

7 2.5.3 2.5.4 2.5.5

Lect

Pract

Left turn review

Left turns at collector street with more traffic. Practice in estimating speed and distance clearance

8   Pract Fun ride with review of previous
9 2.5.6 2.5.7

Lect

Pract

Intersection positioning with left-turn-only lanes

Left turns at 2-lane intersection with left-turn-only lane

10  

Lect

Pract

4-way stop signs. Concept of taking turns

Left turns at appropriate intersection

11  

Lect

Pract

Review all previous

Review ride

12  

Lect

Pract

Traffic signals

Straight, right, and left at traffic signal

13  

Lect

Pract

Intersection positioning by avoiding right-turn-only lanes

Practice in going straight at intersections with right-turn-only lanes

14  

Lect

Pract

Intersection positioning on 4-lane streets

Ride with left, straight, and right turns at 4-lane intersections with light traffic

15     Repeat 14
16 2.6

Lect

 

Pract

Speed positioning, with emphasis on not overtaking between slow car and curb, or between bicycle and curb

Ride performing all maneuvers in shopping traffic

 17    Pract Repeat 16
 18 2.7

Lect

 

Pract

Review. Talk on interacting with motorists in complicated situations, using examples that have arisen in practice

Ride in shopping traffic

 19 & 20     Final examinations

 

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